NanoBio Technology for Alternative Medical Applications
Argonne nanoscientist Elena Rozhkova is studying ways to enlist nanoparticles to treat brain cancer. This nano-bio technology may eventually provide an alternative form of therapy that targets only cancer cells and does not affect normal living tissue. This video is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Lab Breakthroughs series, which brings together video produced by each of the national laboratories about their innovations and discoveries.
A collaborative team comprised of Center for Nanoscale Materials users from the University of Chicago, Argonne's Materials Science Division, and the CNM NanoBio Interfaces Group is studying ways to enlist nanoparticles to treat brain cancer. This nano-bio technology may eventually provide an alternative form of therapy that targets only cancer cells and does not affect normal living tissue.
The following is an interview with Elena Rozhkova of CNM's NanoBio Interfaces Group regarding the accompanying video. Elena obtained her PhD in chemistry from the Moscow State Academy of Fine Chemical Technology, and she specializes in the interfacial chemistry of functional nanobio-hybrid materials design, bio-inspired materials for clean energy production, and stimuli-responsive materials within biological machinery
What makes the breakthrough so exciting for doctors and patients?
"Nano" is a big trend these days, and there are great expectations that it will revolutionize technology and overcome our civilization's challenges, including a sustainable energy supply, information storage, and medical treatments for diseases such as cancer, which is what we're working on. Current treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy, developed in the last century, cannot win a battle with the deadly disease. But nanotechnology is expected to lead to a new generation of diagnostic and therapeutic technologies, dramatically improving the quality of life for millions.
What about your facilities specific resources made it the right place to develop this technology?
The Center for Nanoscale Materials (CNM) at Argonne National Laboratory is a user facility that provides expertise and instruments for interdisciplinary nanoscience and nanotechnology research. The CNM user program is open to academia, industry, and government agencies worldwide. CNM's staff scientists have strong backgrounds in physics, chemistry, materials, and life sciences, which allows us to help medical doctors answer questions in nanoscience and nanotechnology.
I know that work often builds from other work in a "standing on the shoulders of giants "type of way. Are there any particular technologies or discoveries that act as a basis for your work?
Our principles are inspired by biology. For example, we use a high-efficiency photocatalyst called titanium dioxide — a white pigment known from ancient times — to build what's called a nanobio catalyst. This is a nanoparticle that triggers specific reactions in cells. The particle attaches to unwanted (tumor) cells, and when we shine light on them, they kill the cells through oxidation. In another example, magnetic disks attach to tumor cells. When we apply a very weak magnetic field, the disks trigger receptors that cause the cells to begin apoptosis, or "cell suicide."
Experts at Argonne know how to build materials with desired structures and "tune" their photophysical and magnetic properties. While these materials are mainly developed for energy, catalysis, and information storage technologies, they can also be introduced to natural systems to manipulate complex biochemical machinery. Finally, in our collaborative user projects, we translate similar principles to apply these materials for advanced medical technologies.
These are pretty futuristic technologies. If this works, could it possibly mean the end of cancer?
We are fortunate to live in an incredible time in which the field of nanotechnology is vigorously expanding — and nanotechnology itself is a very futuristic, cross-disciplinary field of research and technology. Now scientists are capable of building materials atom by atom and controlling their advanced functions. Such materials can be used to manipulate, control, and repair biological systems at unprecedentedly small scales, all the way down to proteins and DNA. It is very possible that we are going to witness how scientific progress will put an end to a fatal disease.
Could these processes have other applications in medicine? Or even outside of medicine?
Yes. Titanium dioxide has been used to degrade harmful microorganisms,and serve as photocatalytic cleaning and disinfection. Once it is tagged with biological molecules, such as proteins or nucleic acids, it can recognize and demolish unwanted cells, such as tumors, atherosclerosis plaques, and thrombi, and selectively knock down genes involved in illness development. Magnetic disks can be also used for cancer diagnostics and drug delivery.
Outside of medicine, they can be used in "liquid armor," a fluid that hardens upon magnetic field application.